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457.Secure SMS Transaction System on banking (j2me). Abstract

458.Pre-paid Recharging System on Banking.Abstract

459. Utility-Based Rate-Controlled Parallel Wireless Transmission of Multimedia Streams with Multiple Importance Levels.

Abstract :-

Multimedia data often have different levels of importance such that more important bits are less error-tolerant. A new rate control method for transporting such multimedia data over parallel wireless links with heterogeneous reliability is proposed. Rate-controlled parallel transmissions (RCPT) of different layers of a multimedia stream with different levels of importance over a wireless channel that support multiple links with heterogeneous reliability can improve the efficiency in resource allocation while satisfying the quality of service requirement of the multimedia connection. To exploit RCPT, we present and evaluate a novel dynamic resource allocation method that decomposes the available radio resources into multiple sets of links with different levels of reliability. We mathematically formulate a rate control problem for the flexible RCPT scheme and develop an efficient real-time resource allocation algorithm with a remarkably fast rate of convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the utility and reduces the power consumed for delivery of a multimedia stream at the required quality of service, in comparison with a previous scheme, where different layers of each multimedia class are scheduled with dependency, and two schemes that provide homogeneous high or low reliability over all parallel links.

460. Handoff with DSP Support: Enabling Seamless Voice Communications across Heterogeneous Telephony Systems on Dual-Mode Mobile Devices.

Abstract :-

In this paper we investigate the problem of voice communications across heterogeneous telephony systems on dual-mode (WiFi and GSM) mobile devices. Since GSM is a circuit-switched telephony system, existing solutions that are based on packet-switched network protocols cannot be used. We show in this paper that an enabling technology for seamless voice communications across circuit-switched and packet-switched telephony systems is the support of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques during handoffs. To substantiate our argument, we start with a framework based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for vertical handoffs on dual-mode mobile devices. We then identify the key obstacle in achieving seamless handoffs across circuit-switched and packet-switched systems, and explain why DSP support is necessary in this context. We propose a solution that incorporates time alignment and time scaling algorithms during handoffs for supporting seamless voice communications across heterogeneous telephony systems. We conduct testbed experiments using a GSM-WiFi dual-mode notebook and evaluate the quality of speech when the call is migrated from WiFi to GSM networks. Evaluation results show that such a cross-disciplinary solution involving signal processing and networking can effectively support seamless voice communications across heterogeneous telephony systems.

461. A Scheduling Algorithm with Dynamic Priority Assignment for WCDMA Systems.

Abstract :-

In third generation WCDMA systems, shared channels allow many users to jointly utilize a single Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) code. In this paper, we propose a Scheduling Algorithm with Dynamic Priority Assignment (DPA) which is designed for the Downlink-Shared channel (DSCH) of 3G WCDMA systems and operates within a cross layer framework. The DPA scheduler has low computational complexity and is able to provide QoS differentiation among traffic flows based on their delay sensitivity. Through the cross layer framework, DPA takes into account the variations of the wireless channel, and exploits processing gain to improve transmission quality and enable service provisioning when possible. Additionally, by providing a guaranteed rate per traffic flow at each scheduling period, DPA can offer a deterministic delay bound to each connection when transmissions are reliable. Stochastic delay guarantees under transmission power limitations are also provided when the traffic flows are identical. Simulation results show that DPA outperforms Feasible Earliest Due Date (FEDD), a variation of EDD for wireless environments.

462. Efficient Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Abstract :-

This paper presents two efficient flooding algorithms based on 1-hop neighbor information. In the first part of the paper, we consider sender-based flooding algorithms, specifically the algorithm proposed by Liu et al. In their paper, Liu et al. propose a sender-based flooding algorithm that can achieve local optimality by selecting the minimum number of forwarding nodes in the lowest computational time complexity O(n logn), where n is the number of neighbors. We show that this optimality only holds for a subclass of sender-based algorithms. We propose an efficient sender-based flooding algorithm based on 1-hop neighbor information that reduces the time complexity of computing forwarding nodes to O(n). In Liu's algorithm, n nodes are selected to forward the message in the worst case, whereas in our proposed algorithm, the number of forwarding nodes in the worst case is 11. In the second part of the paper we propose a simple and highly efficient receiver-based flooding algorithm. When nodes are uniformly distributed, we prove that the probability of two neighbor nodes broadcasting the same message exponentially decreases when the distance between them decreases or when the node density increases. The analytical results are confirmed using simulation.

463. Information Density Estimation for Content Retrieval in MANETs.

Abstract :-

The paper focuses on a cooperative environment in wireless ad hoc networks, where mobile nodes share information in a peer-to-peer fashion. Nodes follow a pure peer-to-peer approach (i.e., without the intervention of servers), thus requiring an efficient query/response propagation algorithm to prevent network congestion. The main contribution of the paper is the proposal of a novel solution, called Eureka, that identifies the regions of the network where the required information is more likely to be stored and steers the queries toward those regions. To discriminate among regions, the concept of information density is introduced, along with a procedure that allows nodes its estimation. Eureka does not require the use of satellite positioning systems, and proves to be very effective in both vehicular and pedestrian environments.


464. Cooperative Asynchronous Multichannel MAC: Design, Analysis, and Implementation.

Abstract :-

MAC protocols have been studied under different contexts for decades. In decentralized MAC protocols, transmitter-receiver pairs make independent decisions, which are often sub-optimal due to insufficient knowledge about the communication environment. In this paper, we introduce control-plane cooperation at the MAC layer, where neighboring nodes share control information with transmitter-receiver pairs to aid them in making more informed decisions. This augments conventional cooperation, which sits at the data plane where intermediate nodes help relay data for other nodes. In a multi-channel environment, control-plane cooperation enables neighboring nodes to notify transmitter-receiver pairs of channel conflicts and deaf terminals to prevent collisions and retransmissions. Accordingly, we design a cooperative asynchronous multi-channel MAC protocol called CAM-MAC, which uses a single transceiver and is fully asynchronous. We evaluate CAM-MAC from both theoretical and practical perspectives, and show that it closely approaches system capacity and does not realistically suffer from control channel bottleneck. We compare CAM-MAC with its non-cooperative version, UNCOOP, and three recent multi-channel MAC protocols, MMAC, SSCH and AMCP. The results show that CAM-MAC significantly outperforms all of them. We also implement CAM-MAC and UNCOOP on commercial off-the-shelf hardware. The experimental results confirm the viability of CAM-MAC and the cooperation idea.

465. Exploiting In-Zone Broadcasts for Cache Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Abstract :-

The problem of cache sharing for supporting data access in mobile ad hoc networks is studied in this paper. The key to this problem is to discover a requested data item in an efficient manner. In the paper, we propose two caching protocols, IXP and DPIP, which distinguish themselves from the existing ones in that they fully exploit in-zone broadcasts to facilitate cache sharing operation. In particular, the DPIP protocol offers an implicit index push property, which is highly useful for enhancing cache hit ratio in the neighborhood of a data requester node. Moreover, our protocols also exploit the broadcasts to facilitate the design of a simple but efficient count-based cache replacement scheme. Performance study shows that the proposed protocols can significantly improve the performance of data access in a mobile ad hoc network.

466. Topology Management in Directional Antenna-Equipped Ad Hoc Networks.

Abstract :-

With fully directional communications, nodes must track the positions of their neighbors so that communication with these neighbors is feasible when needed. Tracking process introduces an overhead, which increases with the number of discovered neighbors. The overhead can be reduced if nodes maintain only a subset of their neighbors; however, this may increase the length of paths between node pairs in the network. In this work, we study the tradeoffs between node degree and path stretch. We first design a topology control algorithm to optimize this tradeoff. Assuming that nodes communicate with their directional neighbors using circular directional transmissions, we model the original graph as a unit disk graph (UDG). Given a UDG G, our algorithm finds a sparse subgraph G' with a maximum degree of 6, and connecting each node pair u,v by a path of length hops_{G'}(u,v)=O(\hops_G(u,v)+\log\Delta), where Delta is the maximum degree in G, hops_{G}(u,v) denotes length of the shortest path between u, v in G. We show that this result is near-optimal. Based on the insights gained from this design, we next construct a simpler, more practical scheme that integrates fully-directional neighbor discovery and maintenance with topology control strategy. We simulate both algorithms and compare their performances.

467. Social Network Analysis for Information Flow in Disconnected Delay-Tolerant MANETs.

Abstract :-

Message delivery in sparse Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) is difficult due to the fact that the network graph is rarely (if ever) connected. A key challenge is to find a route that can provide good delivery performance and low end-to-end delay in a disconnected network graph where nodes may move freely. We cast this challenge as an information flow problem in a social network. This paper presents social network analysis metrics that may be used to support a novel and practical forwarding solution to provide efficient message delivery in disconnected delay-tolerant MANETs. These metrics are based on social analysis of a node's past interactions and consists of three locally evaluated components: a node's "betweenness" centrality (calculated using ego networks) and a node's social 'similarity' to the destination node and a node's tie strength relationship with the destination node. We present simulations using three real trace data sets to demonstrate that by combining these metrics delivery performance may be achieved close to Epidemic Routing but with significantly reduced overhead. Additionally, we show improved performance when compared to PRoPHET Routing.

468. On Channel Allocation for Heterogeneous Data Broadcasting.

Abstract :-

We explore in this paper the problem of generating broadcast programs in a heterogeneous data broadcasting environment, in which disseminated data items can be of different sizes. Given the broadcast database and the number of channels, we first derive the analytical model of the heterogeneous data broadcasting to obtain the average waiting time of mobile users, and prove the allocation problem as an NP-complete problem. In order to solve such problem, we propose a two-phase architecture to perform channel allocation. Algorithm DRP (Dimension Reduction Partitioning) is employed to perform rough allocation to derive the satisfactory solutions, whereas mechanism CDMS (Cost-Diminishing Movement Selection) is used for fine allocation to achieve local optimum solutions. In addition, we also propose algorithm GA-CDMS according to the concept of hybrid genetic algorithm for comparison purposes. GA-CDMS can perform global search more accurately and efficiently than conventional genetic algorithm GA and the suboptimum that GA-CDMS achieves will be very close to the optimal solution. In the experiments, we consider the important issues such as accuracy, scalability, diversity and the efficiency. From the experimental results, we show that the proposed two-phase channel allocation is very practical in performing an effective channel allocation with high efficiency in a heterogeneous broadcasting environment.


469. Shake Well Before Use: Intuitive and Secure Pairing of Mobile Devices.

Abstract :-

A challenge in facilitating spontaneous mobile interactions is to provide pairing methods that are both intuitive and secure. Simultaneous shaking is proposed as a novel and easy-to-use mechanism for pairing of small mobile devices. The underlying principle is to use common movement as a secret that the involved devices share for mutual authentication. We present two concrete methods, ShaVe and ShaCK, in which sensing and analysis of shaking movement is combined with cryptographic protocols for secure authentication. ShaVe is based on initial key exchange followed by exchange and comparison of sensor data for verification of key authenticity. ShaCK, in contrast, is based on matching features extracted from the sensor data to construct a cryptographic key. The classification algorithms used in our approach are shown to robustly separate simultaneous shaking of two devices from other concurrent movement of a pair of devices, with a false negative rate of under 12 percent. A user study confirms that the method is intuitive and easy to use, as users can shake devices in an arbitrary pattern.

470. MDPF: Minimum Distance Packet Forwarding for Search Applications in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Abstract :-

This paper introduces a message forwarding algorithm for search applications within mobile ad hoc networks that is based on the concept of selecting the nearest node from a set of designated nodes. The algorithm, which is called Minimum Distance Packet Forwarding (MDPF), uses routing information to select the node with the minimum distance. The goal of the proposed algorithm is to minimize the average number of hops taken to reach the node that holds the desired data. Numerical analysis and experimental evaluations using the network simulation software ns2 were performed to derive the lower and upper bounds of the confidence interval for the mean hop count between the source node of the data request, on one hand, and the node that holds the desired data and the last node in the set of search nodes, on the other hand. In the experimental evaluation, the performance of MDPF was compared to that of Random Packet Forwarding (RPF) and Minimal Spanning Tree Forwarding (MSTF). The results agreed with the numerical analysis results and demonstrated that MDPF offers significant hop count savings and smaller delays when compared to RPF and MSTF.

471. TCP-Aware Channel Allocation in CDMA Networks.

Abstract :-

This paper explores the use of rate adaptation in cellular networks to maximize throughput of long-lived TCP sessions. We focus on the problem of maximizing the throughput of TCP connections and propose a joint optimization of MAC and physical layer parameters with respect to TCP sending rate. In particular, we propose a simple TCP-aware channel scheduler that adapts the wireless channel rate to changes in the TCP sending rate and explore its performance for both single and multiple concurrent sessions. In the case of a single TCP session, we develop a fluid model of its steady-state behavior in such a system that adapts between two channel rates. Our results indicate that a two-rate scheme improves TCP throughput by 15% to 20% over a system that does not exploit rate adaptation and that little additional benefit accrues from the addition of a third channel rate. Finally, we extend the framework to scenarios where bandwidth is shared by multiple TCP sessions. We propose two channel allocation algorithms and explore their performance through simulation. Our results indicate that TCP throughput is relatively insensitive to either channel allocation algorithm and adaptive rate variation is the dominant factor in performance.

472. Signaling for Multimedia Conferencing in Stand-Alone Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Abstract :-

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less and can be set up anywhere, anytime. They can host a wide range of applications in rescue operations, military, private, and commercial settings. Multimedia conferencing is the basis of a wealth of "killer” applications that can be deployed in MANETs. Some examples are audio/video conferencing, multiplayer games, and online public debating. Signaling is the nerve center of multimedia conferences—it establishes, modifies, and tears down conferences. This paper focuses on signaling for multimedia conferences in MANETs. We review the state of the art and propose a novel architecture based on application-level clusters. Our validation employed SIP as the implementation technology and OPNET as our simulation tool. Our clusters are constructed dynamically and the nodes that act as cluster heads are elected based on their capabilities. The capabilities are published and discovered using a simple application-level protocol. The architectural principles and the clustering operations are discussed. Our SIP-based implementation is also presented along with the performance evaluation.

473. TMSP Terminal Mobility Support Protocol.

Abstract :-

Mobile IP enables IP mobility support for mobile node (MN), but it suffers from triangular routing, packet redirecting, increase in IP header size, and the need for new infrastructure support. This paper details an alternative to enable terminal mobility support for MN. This scheme does not suffer from triangular routing effect and does not require dedicated infrastructure support such as home agent. It also does not increase the size of the IP header and does not require redirection of packets. These benefits are enabled with a tradeoff, which requires modifications on MN and its correspondent node. It uses an innovative IP-to-IP address mapping method to provide IP address transparency for applications and taps on the pervasiveness of SIP as a location service. From our analysis, we show that TMSP is much more efficient than mobile IP in terms of the number of hops as well as overhead. Our prototype implementation also shows that TMSP provides seamless communication for both TCP and UDP connections and the computational overhead for TMSP has minimal impact on packet transmission.

474. Distance Reduction in Mobile Wireless Communication: Lower Bound Analysis and Practical Attainment.

Abstract :-

The transmission energy required for a wireless communication increases superlinearly with the communication distance. In a mobile wireless network, nodal movement can be exploited to greatly reduce the energy required by postponing communication until the sender moves close to a target receiver, subject to application deadline constraints. In this paper, we characterize the fundamental performance limit, namely the lower bound expected communication distance, achievable by any postponement algorithm within given deadline constraints. Our analytical results concern mainly the random waypoint (RWP) model. Specifically, we develop a tight analytical lower bound of the achievable expected communication distance under the model. In addition, we define a more general map-based movement model, and characterize its lower bound distance by simulations. We also address the practical attainment of distance reduction through movement-predicted communication. Specifically, whereas prior work has experimentally demonstrated the effectiveness a least distance (LD) algorithm, we provide an absolute performance measure of how closely LD can match the theoretical optimum. We show that LD achieves an average reduction in the expected communication distance within 62% to 94% of the optimal, over a realistic range of nodal speeds, for both the RWP and map-based models.

475. Cost- and Collision-Minimizing Forwarding Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks: Design, Analysis and Experimental Validation.

Abstract :-

The paper presents an original integrated MAC and routing scheme for wireless sensor networks. Our design objective is to elect the next hop for data forwarding by jointly minimizing the amount of signaling to complete a contention and maximizing the probability of electing the best candidate node. Towards this aim, we represent the suitability of a node to be the relay by means of locally calculated and generic cost metrics. Based on these costs, we analytically model the access selection problem through dynamic programming techniques, which we use to find the optimal access policy. Hence, we propose a contention-based MAC and forwarding technique, called Cost and Collision Minimizing Routing (CCMR). This scheme is then thoroughly validated and characterized through analysis, simulation and experimental results.

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